注册 登录  
 加关注
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

玉树临风

石滴水

 
 
 

日志

 
 

【转帖】 十二种提高翻译质量的方法  

2010-11-26 20:01:38|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

十二种提高翻译质量的方法

 

【石滴水转帖评论】质量是译员的生命,可是译员看见钱就不要命。不管是否要命,不如平时积累得质量方面的基本功。

               外国人那话儿,对中国译员不一定管用,石滴水那话儿管用,你却不想用。

 

 

 

作者:Danilo NogueiraKelli Semolini

  

世上绝无完美无缺的翻译,即便真有,我们也没把握它是否能使普通客户或批评家满意。但我们一直在努力寻找改善翻译质量的方法,下面向大家谈几点体会。当然这并非“十二步速成完美译员秘诀”之类的内容,说不定有些建议可能让你觉得好笑。

 

 

 

一、避免返工

 

首先,尽量在第一遍就把翻译做好。编辑和修改工作错综复杂、变化不定,而且非常耗时。所以,尽力像实时发布译文一样翻译好每个词语。推拖到“以后”的工作越少,编辑和校对过程中这些工作被忽略的机会就越小。

 

 

 

二、列出危险词汇

 

哪些词汇在译文语言中容易被混淆?例如:英语中Principleprincipal,汉语中“图像”和“图象”。哪些词可能输错?这里并非指那些用拼写检查程序就可纠正的错别词汇,而是指合法词汇,例如:英语中的wherewere,汉语中的图像和图形,使用五笔时常常会把“运行”输入成“支行”,这种词虽然没错,但具有不同意思。列出自己“常犯错误”的清单,使用搜索命令查看是否用错词。

 

 

 

三、运行拼写和语法检查程序

 

编辑校对文本前始终运行拼写和语法检查程序。但是,在检查拼写和语法之前,选择整个文档,将语言设置为译文语言,确保检查程序完全激活,提示信息应出现在工具菜单内。

 

拼写和语法检查程序常被人嘲笑,它们有时检查不出真正问题,却对并不存在的问题提示一些可笑答案。然而,拼写和语法检查程序确实可找到大量值得注意的问题,并且提供的许多答案是完全正确的。尽管不能解决全部问题,但却可节省大量工作。

 

 

 

四、遵守译文语言印刷规则和标点符号规则

 

不同的语言有不同的排版和标点符号惯例,翻译时应遵守译文的语言用法。我们译员当中有太多的人忘记这点,将原文语言的规则强加到译文语言的文本上。例如,我们常常会看到巴西葡萄牙语译文按照英语规则将某些词汇大写了,汉语译文按照英语规则将某些词汇处理为斜体字,甚至有些英语译文中存在中文标点符号和项目编号。

 

许多译员要么输入时粗心大意,要么从不学习如何使用计算机输入文本。例如,我们常常发现这样的翻译:文本词汇之间存在多余空格,逗号前出现空格,英文句点后没有空格,中文句号后加了空格,制表使用不当等等。

 

这种文本不仅给编辑、排版和校对造成不必要的困难,而且还会给客户留下粗心印象,这对我们的形象极其不利。

 

不要说这不属于你的工作:我们应努力做好自己的翻译,从而使编辑员和校对员不必再修改译文,虽然这是不可能的,但始终应努力这样做。

 

以上并非说你应成为一个排版员。事实上,我们与排版人员都承认一种人人皆知的说法:排版人员不翻译,翻译人员不排版。上面所说只是指,我们的工作应符合几项“排版卫生”基本规则。

 

 

 

五、切勿使用“全部替换”命令

 

这是所有命令当中最致命的命令。虽然我们知道操作的替换可以撤销,但我们也知道,通常你只有在应用全部替换半小时并进行了100处其他文本修改后才发现错误,这时再控制纠正已太迟了。

 

 

 

六、不要让拔河比赛损害你的译文

 

翻译过程中,原文语言和译文语言就像在进行拔河比赛,不断产生拉力,根据我们处理的程度,可能使我们的译文丰富多彩,也可能使我们的译文不堪一读。

 

优胜者为原文语言!

 

原文语言占上风时,就会出现翻译腔作品,从中能够容易看到原文“复印效应”。

 

有时,文字没有任何语法错误,但却能够看出,文字并不地道。虽然正确,但读起来别扭。因为不可能引用语法规则检验是否文本需要修改,这使得编辑员的工作更加困难,出现导致译员与编辑员之间不断相互攻击的情况。许多翻译案例中,如有一位不懂译文语言词汇的项目经理参与时,会使情况变得更糟糕。

 

确定翻译是否自然的一种优秀方法是朗读译文,但不幸的是我们根本没有时间去朗读。然而,你应对每个稿件朗读一段试试,确保翻译行文流畅。

 

哈,请不要说你在翻译技术资料,不需要阅读起来自然流畅的译文。除可能存在的零件目录外,译文语言中每种文本都应读起来自然通顺。

 

优胜者为译文语言!

 

然而,自然风格不应以牺牲忠实原文为代价来实现。不对原文与译文进行比较完成编辑工作时,常常导致这种情况。性急的编辑员常常会脱离原稿件修改译文,就好比译文语言在拔河比赛中获胜。

 

译文语言获胜时,我们得到的是法国称为belle infidèle(美而不信)的结果――翻译读起来优美却不忠实于原文。

 

确定翻译是否忠实于原文的唯一方法是对之进行比较(这是一种被不少心急的编辑员或企图节省成本的翻译机构忽视的工作),当不需要对照原文复查译文时,如果还有时间,请求编校人员只在需要时参考原文。

 

即使译文稍后会由他人编辑,大多数译员仍然重视编辑自己的译文,这是非常好的做法。这些译员,有的喜欢分两步编辑:先比较原文和译文检查忠实性,然后只读译文查看是否流畅。有的则喜欢按相反顺序编辑:先检查流畅性,再检查忠实性。无论选择哪种顺序,都应坚持自我编校译文,否则就算没有完成工作。

 

 

 

七、了解同源词、错别字和其他

 

如果翻译涉及的两种语言有同源词,则可能已被警告假同源词,这些具有不同意义但词汇相同或极其相似的语言对,即假朋友,例如:eventual在英语中是一种意思,而在葡萄牙语中又是另一种意思,这种词让不止一位翻译崇拜者感到沮丧。

 

这些警告常常导致多疑观点,认为在译文中不能使用同源词。为啥不能用同源词呢?Eventual在英语和葡萄牙语中具有不同意义,但notável常常是notable的最佳译文。当然,手头有更好地选择时,使用不大理想的翻译会导致不必要的准确性损失。

 

 

 

八、准确

 

准确一种倍受赞赏的翻译美德,但我们经常注意名词和动词的准确,然而准确却时常寓于形容词和副词之中。形容词和副词是典型的“微妙变化词汇”,这种微不足道的词汇对我们的思想起着微调作用。多年前,一家巴西出版社委托一个当地大学教授翻译一本科普书。可能因为译员不喜欢所读的内容,也可能是其他原因,反正,尽管把名词和动词翻译得正确无误,但总把形容词和副词译错。极富创造力的研究仅仅译成有趣的研究,明显错误译成可能错误,诸如此类的错误很多。“技术术语”全是名词或动词,翻译得非常准确,出版社对之非常满意,但是译文质量却非常糟糕。

 

 

 

九、不要陷入介词陷阱

 

有趣的是,大量译员仍然会陷入介词陷阱。大部分介词不会独立存在,它们需要由动词或名词来搭配。例如:of在葡萄牙语应译为de,然而,因为葡萄牙语中动词sonhar(梦)用介词com,所以dream of应译成sonhar com。汉语“的的不已”,多余的“被”字。

 

这种情况,你翻译动词或名词,不必考虑原文中的介词:只有在译文中需要介词时才使用介词,即将动词或名词与相应介词作为一个单独单位看待。

 

 

 

十、检查页眉、页脚、图形和文本框

 

我们翻译时常常会直奔正文,忽视页眉和页脚,这里常常隐藏严重的错误。如果原文文本为MS Word文档,请注意有些图形在打印预览方式时才会显示,而且不要忘记寻找有无文本框。因为我们确实没有这样做,最近就与一家翻译机构陷入极其尴尬的困境,文档有两个微小的文本框,总共不到十个字。但这恰恰是关键字,最终客户最先注意的就是这几个字。

 

 

 

十一、重新运行拼写和语法检查程序

 

交付稿件之前,为安全起见,最好再运行一次拼写和语法检查程序。我们在编校过程中常常又会产生语法和拼写错误,最后就得检查和清除这种错误了。

 

 

 

十二、请其他人检查你的译文

 

如果你的客户是翻译机构,那么很可能会有专门的译审来检查你的译文。如果你的客户是最终客户,你应另寻他人来检查你的译文。即使你的译作非常优秀,他们也会从中发现奇怪的错误,并将译文改的面目全非。但请做好心理准备:编校眼里无佳译[作者注:我应知道这点!]

 

 

 

(英文来源:http://www.translationdirectory.com/articles/article2031.php

 

 

 

There is no such a thing as perfect translation-and even if there were, we could not be sure it would satisfy the average client or critic. But we have been looking for ways to improve the quality of our translations and we would like to share a few of our findings with you. This is not a How to Become a Perfect Translator in 12 Easy Steps sort of thing, but some of the suggestions may make you think-or perhaps smile, who knows.

 

Avoid Rework

Let's begin with trying to do things right the first time. Editing and revising are tricky, treacherous and time-consuming tasks. So, try to translate each phrase as if the translation were to be published on real time. The fewer points go into the "later" box, the smaller the chance they will pass unnoticed during editing and proofreading.

 

Keep a List of Dangerous Words

What are the easily confusable of your target language? Principle and principal? What words can be mistyped? We don't mean words that do not exist and thus will be rejected by the spell checker, we mean legitimate words, such as where and were, both of which are correct, but have different meanings. Keep a list of your "favorite mistakes" and use the search command to see if and when you used them.

 

Run the Spell and Grammar Checker

Always run the spell and grammar checker before editing a text. Before checking spelling and grammar, however, select the entire document, set the language to your target language and make sure the checker is fully active. The information should be somewhere in a tools menu.

 

Spell and grammar checkers are often ridiculed, because they fail to detect real problems and suggest ludicrous solutions to non-existing problems, but they do find a large number of points that deserve attention and many of the solutions offered are perfectly correct. They do not solve all problems, but save a lot of work.

 

Comply with Target-Language Typography and Punctuation Rules

Different languages have different typographical and punctuation conventions and your translation should comply with target language usage. Far too many of us forget this and impose source-language rules on our target-language text. For instance, we often see Brazilian Portuguese translations where words are capitalized following English rules.

 

In addition, many of us are simply careless typists or never bothered to learn how to enter text using a computer. For instance, we often find translations…

 

where words are separated by more than one space, there are spaces before commas ,but none after( and similar problems with brackets )tabs are used incorrectly and so forth.

 

This type of text makes life unnecessarily difficult for editors, typesetters, and proofreaders alike. In addition, it leaves an impression of carelessness that does not contribute much to our image.

 

Don't tell us this is none of your business: you should try to make your translations so good that editor and proofreader do not have to touch them. You cannot, but you should try all the same.

 

The above should not be construed to mean that you are to become a typesetter. In fact, to paraphrase a well-known dictum, we have an agreement with typesetters: they do not translate, we do not do typesetting. It means that our work should conform to a few basic rules of "typographical hygiene."

 

Never use the "Replace All" Command

This is the most deadly and fatal of all commands. We know it can be undone. But we also know that, as a rule, you only notice you have done something horrible half an hour after applying it and introducing another 100 improvements in the text, and then it is too late for control-zeeing it.

 

Don't Let the Tug of War Spoil your Translation

During translation, source and target language play a game of tug of war, creating an unceasing tension that may enrich our work-or not, depending on how well we can handle it.

 

And the Winner is: the Source Language!

 

When the source language wins, we have a piece of translationese, where we can easily see the "print through" of the original.

 

Sometimes the text is free from grammar errors, but you can see that it is not the real thing. It is correct, but it reads funny. That makes the task of the editor a lot more difficult, because it is impossible to quote grammar rules to prove that the text needs changing, a situation that results in endless mud-slinging matches between translator and editor. In many cases, there is a PM involved who, to make things worse, does not understand a word of the target language.

 

A good way to determine whether a translation is natural is to read it aloud, but unfortunately we never have time for that. However, you should try to read a paragraph of each job aloud, just to make sure it flows well. You may be in for a surprise.

 

Ah, don't tell us that you translate technical stuff and that does not need to read natural. With the possible exception of parts lists, every text should read natural in the target language.

 

And the Winner is: the Target Language!

 

Natural style, however, should not be conquered at the expense of fidelity. This often is the result of an editing job done without comparing the target against source. An overeager editor often improves a translation away from the original, so to say-a case where the target language wins.

 

When the target language wins, we have what the French call a belle infidèle—a translation that reads beautifully, but is not true to the original.

 

The only way to determine whether a translation is true to its original is to compare them, a task neglected by more than one harried editor, or by agencies that, in an attempt to cut costs, ask editors-proofreaders to refer to the original only when needed, as if there were times when double checking translations against the original was not needed.

 

Most translators make a point of editing their own work, even if it is to be edited later by someone else, which is very good practice. Some of those translators prefer to edit in two steps: first, compare target and source texts, to check fidelity; then read the target text alone, to see if it flows. Others do it in the reverse order: first check for flow, then for fidelity.

 

Whatever order you chose, stick to it, or you will never finish that job.

 

Know your Cognates, False and Otherwise

If your language pair has cognates, you probably have already been warned against false cognates, otherwise called false friends, those misleading pairs of equal or very similar words that have different meanings, such as eventual, which means one thing in English and quite another thing in Portuguese, to the dismay of more than one wannabe translator.

 

These admonitions have often led to the paranoid view that you cannot use cognates in a translation. Why not? Eventual has different meanings in English and Portuguese, but notável often is the optimal translation for notable. Of course, using a less-than-optimal translation when there is a better choice at hand results in unnecessary loss of precision.

 

Be Precise

Precision is a great translatorial virtue, but we often look for precision in nouns and verbs, whereas as often as not, precision lies in adjectives and adverbs. Adjectives and adverbs are the "shading words" par excellence, the little words that fine-tune our thoughts. Years ago, a Brazilian publisher entrusted a local college professor with the translation of a science book for the general public. Either because the translator didn't like what he read or for some other reason, although nouns and verbs were always correctly rendered, adjectives and adverbs were almost always translated wrong. A groundbreaking study became merely interesting, an obvious mistake became possible and so forth. The "technical terms," all of them nouns and verbs, were perfect and the publisher was very happy with it, but the translation was very poor.

 

Don't Fall into the Preposition Trap

Funny how many translators still fall into the preposition trap. Most prepositions do not have a life of their own: they are required by a verb or a noun. A good example is of, which is supposed to translate as de in Portuguese. It so happens, however, that to dream of is sonhar com because the verb sonhar (dream) takes the preposition com in Portuguese.

 

In those cases, you translate the verb or noun and don't give a thought to the preposition in the source language: just use the preposition required in the target language. That is, see verb or noun and the respective preposition as a single unit.

 

Check Headers, Footers, Graphs and Text boxes

We tend to go directly to the main text and forget about headers and footers, where more than one grave error lies in hiding. If the source text is an MS Word document, remember that some graphics will show only in print preview mode. And look for text boxes.

 

We recently got into very hot water with an agency because we did fail to do this and the document had two tiny text boxes, totaling fewer than ten words. But they were key words and the first thing the final client paid attention to.

 

Run the Spelling and Grammar Checker Once More

Before delivering the job, run the spelling and grammar checker once more, just for safety's sake. We often introduce grammar and spelling errors while editing and this is the last chance to get rid of them.

 

Have a Second Pair of Eyes Check your Work

If you are working for an agency, there is a very good chance your work will be checked by an editor. If you are working for a final client, you should arrange for someone else to read your job. Even if you are very good, a second pair of eyes will find the odd mistake and make the odd improvement that can make a great difference. But be prepared: no translator is a hero to his editor [Danilo's personal note: I should know!]

 

 

 

 

原贴地址:http://chenleix.cn/index.php/?p=288

 

  评论这张
 
阅读(1126)| 评论(0)
推荐 转载

历史上的今天

评论

<#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

页脚

网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2017